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Kidney cancer is cancer that begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs roughly the size of your fist. They're located behind the abdominal organs with one kidney on each side of the spine. In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Other less common types of kidney cancer can occur.


Kidney cancer usually doesn’t have signs or symptoms in its early stages. However, signs and symptoms may develop in time, including:

  • Blood in the urine, which may appear pink, red or cola colored
  • Pain in your back or side that doesn’t go away
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever

Risk Factors

Factors that can increase the risk of kidney cancer include:

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Treatment for kidney failure
  • Certain inherited syndromes
  • Family history of kidney cancer

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