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Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.

Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. However, testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination.


Symptoms of testicular cancer include:

  • Lumps or enlargement in either testicle
  • Heaviness in the scrotum
  • Dull aches in the abdomen or groin
  • Sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum
  • Back pain

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include:

  • An undescended testicle (i.e., men who have a testicle that never descended during birth)
  • Abnormal testicle development
  • Family history
  • Age – testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age.
  • Race – testicular cancer is more common in white men than in Black men.

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